Detailed project objectives
Valuation and value analysis are key factors that determine the ways and forms of dealing with cultural heritage. This statement applies to all elements of heritage, from intangible heritage and digital heritage to movable heritage and all types of immovable heritage such as historic buildings, cities, cultural landscapes, industrial heritage and heritage of the modern movement, as well as vernacular architecture
In the traditional model of heritage preservation and conservation, heritage was perceived and assessed in isolation without much emphasis on the natural, social and economic contexts of its valuation. As a consequence, the analysis of heritage values was to a very limited extend able to include external values and factors. Such a model, however, does not correspond to contemporary reality and is no longer useful– nor sufficient for an effective protection, conservation and responsible use of heritage. As follows, the contemporary methodology of the analysis of heritage values must be holistic and more comprehensive.
The concept of the project departs from the partners’ conviction that in the current circumstances it is essential to perceive the environment as an integrated whole. Therefore, cultural heritage should be perceived and assessed as one of the components of a whole as well as analysed in relation to other components of the historic setting. Its economic values (both use and non-use values) as well as social values should be taken into account. Cultural heritage should be understood as an important factor shaping the identity of contemporary communities and as an element subjected to a variety of - often competitive – aims and interpretations. As a consequence, the analysis of heritage values should take into account different value systems, and additional relations, functions and conditions impacting on the valuation process.
Idea and objectives of the project.
The idea of the project is to use the experiences, methods and results of research on the cultural heritage values, that are conducted with regard to different types of heritage and in different conditions. Thus, the consortium gathers a multidisciplinary team of researchers from different countries (which provides a variety of conditions, national contexts and research traditions ranging from Southern to Northern and Eastern Europe) and plans to consider valuation of heritage of different typological provenience. At the same time, the diversity of research endeavours conducted by the consortium members and a fusion of their results within the consortium should create interesting synergistic effects. The research areas were delimited taking into account two main components:
- Typology of cultural heritage: typological groups of cultural heritage with different attributes conveying cultural significance
The groups were selected due to the importance to the entire area of cultural heritage: intangible heritage, works of art, architectural buildings, vernacular architecture, historic cities.
- Valuation Systems: values and valuation methodologies
Due to the importance for the valuation process, the following valuation systems were selected: the traditional system of cultural heritage valuation (such as monuments of architecture focused on the monuments’ intrinsic values) and new approaches to heritage valuation including the economic, social and environmental dimensions of valuation.
Based on the synthesis of the above mentioned elements the methodology will be developed to enable the inclusion of the largest possible number of valuation subsystems and dimensions (of the mentioned). The methodology developed as a result of the project - will be comprehensive and open - to allow the valuation of diverse types of heritage properties, taking into account different points of view, local or regional contexts.
The methodology should allow the value analysis in terms of:
- conservation of cultural heritage (the heritage value as the piece of work being under protection)
- protection (cultural heritage values resulting from the necessary dialogue with the widest possible circle of stakeholders)
- use of heritage (heritage value for its direct users and investors)
As according to the partners of this project a major weakness of the current valuation system still dominating among conservators and professional heritage bodies is its unilateralism, the elaborated methodology (model of valuation) must be multilateral and to some extent adjustable – in order to incorporate many diverse valuation perspectives
Tasks and scientific stages of project.
The Project aims to fulfil three main objectives, which are also the scientific stages of its implementation (they will be organized into 3 WP forms)
- Scientific task ONE – Elaboration and synthesis of the state-of- the-art (WP2)
This task consists of collecting and synthesis of the available research material concerning cultural heritage valuation. Scientific studies on valuation and varied systems of heritage valuation applied in conservation practice will be analyzed. In particular valuation systems of the countries, where the values defined by the interest-holders are most broadly respected (Great Britain, Australia, Canada). Valuation systems applied to the most precious groups of cultural heritage (such as properties on the UNESCO World Heritage List, European Heritage Label, Monuments of History in the Polish legal order) will be given special attention. The analysis will also include approaches to heritage valuation from an economic and social point of view. The results of studies and publications of specialist institutions such as the Getty Institute (USA) and International Scientific Committee of Theory of Conservation (ICOMOS) will be taken into account. The results – collected material, analyses and syntheses will be presented in the form of scientific articles, chapters of a publication summarizing the outcome of this first scientific task.
- Scientific task TWO – Elaboration of the SMART Values methodology (WP3)
The task will consist of developing a new, complex and comprehensive methodology of heritage valuation. The methodology will be built and elaborated departing from the results of analyses made in the course of realization of WP2 (Elaboration and synthesis of the state-of-art). The methodology will regard at least three valuation scales – territorial scale, stakeholders’ scale and value scale. Within the value scale the broadest possible array of values should be included (developed in the first task). Importantly, the methodology should respect immaterial values as well as their material carriers, cultural and economic (use and non-use values). In the development of the methodology, the system of analysis and evaluation for properties nominated for the UNESCO World Heritage List, will also be taken into account (the so far best developed valuation system from the procedural point of view).The results – the developed methodology, will be published as a separate scientific volume as well as presented and discussed during an international scientific conference organised by the project consortium.
- Scientific task THREE – Application of the SMART Values methodology in pilot projects. Anticipation of future impact of project and its dissemination (WP4)
The task will consist of applying the developed methodology to the analysis of values of several, particular selected heritage properties. They will represent three main typological groups of heritage (pieces of art, architectural monuments and historical towns). Pilot projects (analyses) will be conducted in all countries belonging to the consortium. The subject of the analysis will be heritage of the greatest (possibly most complex and multidimensional) value to test the valuation process using the biggest number of dimensions and elements (values).
Pilot programs will also try to apply the results of the value analyses to various forms of heritage maintenance – conservation, protection, modern use and adaptation (for various purposes). The results of analyses and pilot projects will be presented as scientific articles – chapters in the planned publication summarizing the outcomes of the third scientific task.
Forms of work and presentation of the outcome
The work of consortium will be organized in a way, that guarantees achievement of the scientific goals, including individual and group work in national teams and across them and discussions of the outcomes within the whole consortium (seminars and conferences) as well as their review, implementation and publicity (pilot projects and publications).
Each scientific task, having been developed by the consortium members, will be presented and discussed at a seminar (in total 2 seminars and 1 conference are planned). Moreover, the results will be presented in a series of publications (in total 3 publications are planned). The publications will be available in printed and digital form, including presentation on the most important, open database on heritage – linked to the Open Archives ICOMOS International.
Assumption: The objectives should be those achievable within the project, not through subsequent development. They should be stated in a measurable and verifiable form, including the milestones that will be reached. Impact of project in cultural heritage and global change and future exploitation of results in diagnose and decision making processes are key assumption of research.
Added value of the project and transnational cooperation
The attainment of European Added Value (EAV), as a value that would have resulted from JPI/JHEP would not result in local field e.g. projects involving participants from only one country, but at international level, while promoting research activities. Cultural heritage is now being perceived as an important factor creating the identity of contemporary communities and as the element subjected to a variety of - often competitive - interpretations. As a consequence, the analysis of the heritage values should take into account different value systems, and additional relations, functions and conditions. It is clear that efforts are being made at strategic level on what should be done (EC, 2005; UNESCO, 2011), though to a much less extent on the theoretical and practical level. Our ‘expected benefits’ i.e. improvements in particular areas which are expressed in qualitative rather than quantitative terms. The SMART value project is of added value to bridge these levels by both public authorities and the private sector.The primary challenge is to maximize EAV .
Developments on theory are needed to provide an understanding on the values, as well as, on how to apply them in methodologies. Further, very little is known on patterns of weighting and relationships between the cultural values, either specifically per group of stakeholders or globally per generation. The stakeholders involved in the management of these properties are curious to embrace this landscape-based approach, though, they are still lacking the methods and tools for monitoring and consequently assessing cultural significance more systematically.
The SMART value project will allow the participant countries to position, discuss and evaluate their guiding theories, strategies and practices concerning their approach towards valuing cultural significance. They will be able to reach consensus on a heritage valuation methodology and debate its application in their countries. Such international forum is expected to aid all researching further steps and optimize their methods and tools.
SMART VALUE AREAS of EXPECTED BENEFIT ARE:
1. Improved scientific and technological capability
- expanded and consolidated know-how and knowledge bases;
- enhanced scientific and technological infrastructure.
2. Improvements in the way participating organizations conduct their affairs
- better use of S&T resources;
- improved ability to collaboration and network;
- improved decision making policy and risk management;
- enhanced ability to innovate
From Value to Benefits and Programme Effectiveness.
LUT and its cooperating specialist – partners in the project welcome the opportunity to, on the one hand learn about experiences and models of heritage valuation developed in other European countries, on the other may present the Polish and more broadly speaking Central European point of view and developments with respect to heritage valuation taking place in the last few decades heavily influenced not only by the general changes in approach to heritage taking place on the global level, but also by the peculiar post-socialist context in which heritage valuation in Poland (East Europe) takes places, intensive parallel processes of commercialisation and market reorientation, Europeanisation, devolution, regionalisation and globalisation observed in recently years (Szmygin 2006; Murzyn-Kupisz, 2012).
Europe evidently has a wealth of cultural heritage, artworks and “cultural treasures” expressed in various forms, from graffiti to frescos to architecture, created over the centuries by people from various cultures, and epitomising various styles (Greek, Renaissance, etc.). Cultural heritage contributes to the artistic, educational or social development of Europe, it is a source of value: aesthetic value, experience value, existence value; its production implies economic movement, and not to take it into consideration would lead to a lack of fundamental understanding of its diverse significance.
SMART VALUE goals represent a relevant contribution to both management and sustainable exploitation of heritage. The key point is the idea to provide a consistent tool providing an objective evaluation of the “scores” related to a specific “heritage” in different domains such as: absolute cultural values, relative cultural value, authenticity, cultural identity value, exploitation value, management score, ROI value, etc. This is the first step toward a more effective management of cultural resources. It provides a rationale to make appraisal among top-level international and national heritage, local or minor heritage and even, the lower fraction that is considered of less significance, greatly due to the lack public funding. SMART VALUE may support public and private decision makers assigning financial resources to restore or maintain cultural heritage. Considering another set of data provided by the methodology, it will be possible to rank exploitation plans and return of investments by enabling fine-tuning and assessments.
In conclusion, in a very rich heritage panorama ranging between natural, mixed and cultural domains as the Italian one is, SMART VALUE provides a unique tool in order to enable the smart management of the cultural properties. This is true both for superintendents, public authorities and private owners.
The mission of Vilnius Academy of Arts (VDA) is to implement the regional cultural politics. One of the most important results of Panemune castle project case within the SMART Value is the inclusion of local community in cultural heritage animation process. Traditions and lifestyle of local community are directly related with immaterial cultural heritage. The results of the project will help for local community and VDA to tame the cultural heritage property. Research on communication with the local community is particularly important to achieve successful results. The international conference, scientific publications, as well as the project results, the possibility to learn from the experiences in management of cultural heritage from the project partner countries is particularly significant.
The Smart Value project will provide an excellent opportunity for Lithuania to expand scientific cooperation on a European scale. VDA welcomes the opportunity to be able to discuss concepts of values, perceptions of value in an international forum, to get the experiences as found in other countries, and to test its own methodologies on the particular medieval castle case. The Lithuanian impact will contribute to the goals of SMART Value through discussions, cooperation, scientific research and publications, different approaches to value assessment.